Selasa, 10 Maret 2015


1.  Narrative
A.    Definition
A narative tells a story or an event or experience, using in coronological order.
B.     Purpose
  To amuse or entertain the reader by telling the story.
C.    Geniric Structure
Ø  Orientation
(who were in volved in the story, when, and where)
(setting, character, a plot)
Ø  Complication
(a problem arises followed by other problem)
Ø  Resolution
(solution of the problem)
D.    Example
      The Fox and The Cat
One day a cat and a fox were having a conversation. The fox, who was a conceited creature, boasted how clever she was. 'Why, I know at least a hundred tricks to get away from our mutual enemies, the dogs,' she said.
'I know only one trick to get away from dogs,' said the cat. 'You should teach me some of yours!'
'Well, maybe some day, when I have the time, I may teach you a few of the simpler ones,' replied the fox airily.
Just then they heard the barking of a pack of dogs in the distance. The barking grew louder and louder - the dogs were coming in their direction! At once the cat ran to the nearest tree and climbed into its branches, well out of reach of any dog. 'This is the trick I told you about, the only one I know,' she called down to the fox. 'Which one of your hundred tricks are you going to use?'
The fox sat silently under the tree, wondering which trick she should use. Before she could make up her mind, the dogs arrived. They fell upon the fox and tore her to pieces.
A single plan that works is better than a hundred doubtful plans.
2.  Description
A.    Definition
Description tex is about sensory experience how something looks, sound tastes.
B.     Purpose
  To describe particular person of thing.
C.    Geniric Structure
  Identification
(mention the name, occupation, career)
  Description
(mention the pshycal features)
D.    Example
Miley Cyrus 
Her name is Miley Cyrus. She is an actress and singer from USA. She was born on November 23, 1992 in Franklin, Tennessee.
Miley Cyrus is the daughter of a country singer, Billy Ray Cyrus. Her mother is Dolly Parton, a famous American singer.
Miley Cyrus has an oval face. Her hair is wavy. The colour is brown. Miley Cyrus is a vegetarian. She doesn’t like eating some meat.
Her favourite meal is Chinese food. Miley Cyrus has a bad habit. She likes to bite her nails very often.
3.  News Item
A.    Definition
News Item is one type of english text to inform the reader about the event that happen everiday.
B.     Purpose
  To inform the reader, listener or viewer.
C.    Geniric Structure
  Newswrthy events
      Recount the event in a brief form or summary form
  Background events
      Elaborate what happened, to whom, or in what circum stances
  Sources
D.    Example
Growing Number of High School Student Smoking
A survey has found about 13 percent of first-time smokers in the country are junior high school students. It also revealed 89 percent of young female employees were smokers.
The survey was conducted in five major cities across the country, including Surakarta in Central Java.
Muhammad Syahril Mansyur, the Surakarta Health Agency’s respiratory illness division, said that the finding of the survey showed an alarming growth rate of Indonesian smokers. "This situation is a cause for concern,” he said. “It appears the country’s younger generation is uneducated about the health risks of smoking.”
The Indonesian anti-tobacco campaign has reportedly been deemed as ineffective as the government refuses to sign the international convention on tobacco control. It said that cigarette producers contributed to a large amount to state revenue and gave jobs to thousands of workers.
4.  Recounts
A.    Definition
Recount text is a text which retelis event or expriences is the post.
B.     Purpose
  To tell the reader what happen in the past through a sequence of events.
C.    Geniric Structure
  Orientation
(who were in volved in the story, when, and where
  Events
(tell what happened in a chronological order)
  Re – Orientation
(the conclusion of the experience)
D.    Example
My Adolescence
I had my adolescence when I was thirteen.
It started with acne that showed up on my face. It was very annoying. It lowered my self-esteem and I was embarrassed to come out of my house and play with friends.
Fortunately, my Mum gave me a good medicine. In three weeks, the acnes started to vanish although those showed some black spots in my face.
That was my bad experience with adolescence, though there were still lots of good experience too.
5.  Reports
A.    Definition
Report text  is the explanation about report.
B.     Purpose
  To describe the way thing.
C.    Geniric Structure
  General classification
(introduce the topic of the report)
  Identification
(give the parts, habitat, behavior, etc)
D.    Example
A kangaroo is an animal found only in Australia, although it has a smaller relative, called a wallaby, which lives on the Australian island of Tasmania and also in New Guinea.
Kangaroos eat grass and plants. They have short front legs, but very long, and very strong back legs and a tail. These are used for sitting up and for jumping. Kangaroos have been known to make forward jumps of over eight metres, and leap across fences more than three metres high. They can also run at speeds of over 45 kilometres per hour.
The largest kangaroos are the Great Grey Kangaroo and the Red Kangaroo. Adult grow to a length of 1.60 metres and weigh over 90 kilos.
Kangaroos are marsupials. This means that the female kangaroo has an external pouch on the front of her body. A baby kangaroo is very tiny when it is born, and it crawls at once into this pouch where it spends its first five months of life
6.  Analytical Exposition
A.    Definition
Analytical Exposition is text that convince readers to pay attantion to a particular problem.
B.     Purpose
  To persuade by presenting arguments.
  To analyse or explain “how” and “why”.
C.    Geniric Structure
  Thesis
      It introduces topics, and indicates the writer`s opinion/ posision.
  Arguments
      The argument support the thesis.
  Reiteration
      It restates the poin of viw the thesis.
D.    Example
Do you agree that music is important in our life? Yes I do, music has certain role completing our day to day activities. Here are some reasons why music is heard everywhere and anywhere.
Music is a way to express feelings. When we fall in love, the kind of music we’d listen to would be all about love. When we’re sad, we would go for music that is melancholic in nature and immerse ourselves in the sadness. When we’re happy, we’d choose songs with happy tunes too.
Song can help to memorize the last experiences. A favorite song is a powerful documentary. People with Alzheimer which are impaired the brain would remember details about songs they were familiar with. For example, an elderly woman who couldn’t even remember her husband’s name would remember the details of her favorite song; when it was played, how it made her feel and things about the song that made it especially memorable for her.
Further, music can unite people for a cause and changes the world. A song with good lyric and striking deep chord can stimulate the universal feeling of all people. We can see it in the case of the famous and legendary Michael Jacson's Heal the World. It can arouse humanism of a lot people in this world.
So what would the world be like without music? It would be lonely.
7.  Hortatory Exposition
A.    Definition
A Hortatory exposition is a type of spoken or written text that is intended to explain the listeners or readers that something should or should not happen or be done.
B.     Purpose
  To Persuade the reader.
C.    Geniric Structure
  Thesis
      The writer`s point of view about the topic discussed
  Arguments
      The series of argument wich streng then the thesis stated before.
  Recommandations
      The writer`s give s recommendation to the readers.
D.    Example
Recently most people own mobile phone. Why does mobile phone user increase dramatically in recent years? First, the feature and functions has increased. Mobile phone is not used just for calling, but sending text, taking pictures, recording videos, accessing internet, playing games and much more. Second, mobile phone has also become a lot cheaper. Now this communication device does not only fill the pocket of adult but also teenager and student. Even a lot phones are intentionally designed to teenaged market. However should they be allowed to bring them to school?
Many schools do not allow students to bring cell phones to school. It is very reasonable because bringing phone to school potentially disrupts the learning process. Most students use cell phones irresponsibly. They use cell phones to talk to their friend during class time. They also use the calculator and camera features in the class as well. Those potentially lead less concentration in the time of learning and teaching process.
Students go to school to learn and behave fair way. Mobile phones provide a large temptation to cheat in tests. They can communicate to anyone and almost anywhere in the world. Because of the small size of the cell phone, students can send a text quietly and discreetly. The text can go unnoticed anywhere to get help on answering tests, homework, and other class assignment. Learning in school is to behave fair not cheating.
Therefore, schools should ban students from bringing their cell phones. However it should be done fairly. In case of an emergency some student need a call for help, providing easy access to phone is better.
8.  Review
A.    Definition
An article that presents a critical evaluation of a text, performance, or production (for example, a book, movie, concert, or video game)
B.     Purpose
  To summarise, analyse, and respond to art works.
  Tocritique an art work or events for a public audience.
C.    Geniric Structure
  Orientation
      Places the work in its general and particular context
  Interpretative Recount
      Summaries the plot and / or provides an account of the reviewed rendition of the work came into being.
  Evaluation
      Provides an evaluation of the work or its ferformance or production.
  Evaluation Summation
      Provides a kind of punch line which sums up the reviewr`s opinion of art event as awhole.
D.    Example
One day, a young farm boy named Eragon finds a blue stone while hunting and tries to sell it for money. Unsuccesful in his attempts, he takes the stone back to his cabin and lets it sit there until it hatches into a beautiful blue dragon. Eragon realizes he can talk to this secret pet dragon with his mind, and eventually learns that he and the dragons are part of a legacy of secret heroes called the Riders. With the help of Brom, a wise man, Eragon matures into his destiny. The challenges he faces include fighting a long-standing war, helping an ethereal elf, and dealing with tragedy and revenge. Certain details, such as Eragon's revealation that he cannot read, develop this reach work and blend together to produce a number of plot twists. The story builds suspense steadily until the end. Remarkably, author Christopher Paolini began writing ERagon at the age of 15. Now 19, he has already established himself as an exciting new creator whose influence include Tolkien, McCaffrey, and others. His world is intricate, his characters believable, and his writing engaging. Both casual readers and hardcore fans of fantasy and science fiction novels will enchanted by this well crafted fantasy and unquestionably will look forward to parts two and three of this exciting trilogy.
9.  Explanation
A.    Definition
Explanation text type tells how or why something occurs. It looks at the steps rather than the things.
B.     Purpose
  To explain the processes involved in the formation and working of natural or sociocultular phenomena.
C.    Geniric Structure
  A general statement to position the reader
      It is the general statement about the fenomenon issue which is to be explained.
  A sequenced explanitaion of why or how something occur
      It consist of sequenced explanation of why / how something occurs or a series of choronological steps which explain “how” “or” “why” something happen.
  Closing
D.    Example
How is a Kite Flying?
A kite is an object which is made from a light material stretched over a frame. Due to its light material a kite will lift off the ground and fly when it is tilted into the wind.
A kite is uses wind to make it fly because it is heavier than air. When wind travels over the surface of the kite, it is split into two streams of air. One stream of the air goes over the kite while the second stream goes under the kite.
The upper stream creates an area of low pressure above the kite. The lower stream hits the kite at a shallow angle and creates an area of high pressure.
The high pressure area has a pushing effect while the low pressure area has a pulling effect. The combination of push and pull can creates enough force to lift the kite into the air.
Kites have been known for thousand of years. They are used for military or scientific purposes. Todays kites are much used for leisure and competition.
10.      Discussion
A.    Definition
Discussion is a text which present a problematic discourse.
B.     Purpose
  To explore various perspective before coming to an informed decision.
  To present information and opinions about more then one side of an issue.
C.    Geniric Structure
  Opening statement presenting the issue
  Arguments or evidence for different points of view
  Concluding Recommendation
D.    Example
Living in a big city has both advantages and disadvantages
On the plus side, it is often easier to find work, and there is usually a choice of public transport, so you don’t need to own a car. Also, there are a lot of interesting to do and places to see.
For example, you can eat in good restaurants, visit the museums, and go to the theater and to concerts. What is more, when you want to relax, you can usually find a park where you can feed the ducks or just sit on a park bench and read a book. All in all, city life is full of bustle and variety and you need never feel bored.
However, for every plus there is a minus. For one thing, you might have a job, but unless it is very well paid, you will not be able to afford many of the things that there are to do, because living in a big city is often very expensive.
It is particularly difficult to find good, cheap accommodation. What is more, public transport is sometimes crowded and dirty, particularly in the rush hour, and even the parks can become very crowded, especially on Sundays when it seems that every city dweller is looking for some open space and green grass. Last of all, despite all the crowds, it is still possible to feel very lonely in a city.
In conclusion, I think that city life can be particularly appealing to young people, who like the excitement of the city and don’t mind the noise and pollution. However, many people, when they get older, and particularly when they have young children, often prefer the peace and fresh air of the countryside.

11.      Procedure
A.    Definition
Procedural text is a text which gives instructions on how to do something.
B.     Purpose
  To help us do a taskor make something. They can be a set of instruction or dierctions.
C.    Geniric Structure
  Goal
  Materials
(ingredients, utensials, equipment)
  Steps
(a step of instruction)
D.    Example
How to make Indomie Fried Noodles
● Two slices of bread
● Something inside (fried-egg, strawberry jam, chocolate sprinkles, a sausage, etc.)
● First, boil two glasses of water in a pan.
● Then, open the package of Indomie fried noodles.
● While waiting for the water to boil, pour the seasoning: chili sauce, soya sauce and oil into a bowl.
● After the water is boiled, drain the noodles.
● Next, throw away the water.
● Then, pour the noodles into the bowl.
● After that, mix the noodles with the seasoning, sauce, and the other ingredients.
● Now, your noodles are ready.

12.      Functional
A.    Definition
Functional tex is a text used for specifict
B.     Purpose
Ø  To express sympathy on someone`s
Ø  To motivate someone on gaining achivement
C.    Geniric Structure
Ø  Orientation
Ø  Interpretative recont
Ø  evaluation
D.    Examle
Urgently required
An English Teacher.Male. Fond of teaching.Minimum SI graduate from English department.
Send your application Letter ,not later than July 19,2012 to :
13.      Spoof
A.    Definition
Spoof is a text which tells factual story, happened in the past time with unpredictable and funny ending. Its social function is to entertain and share the story.
B.     Purpose
  To tell an events with humorous twist.
C.    Geniric Structure
  Orientation
(who were in volved in the story, when, and where)
  Events
(tell what happened in chronological order)
  Twist
(provide the funniest parts if the story)
D.    Exampel
Joe's Mother got angry because her son got a low mark on English test.
"Why did you get such a low mark on that test?" Asked mother angrily. Asked by his angry mother, Joe just kept silent and went out.
A few moment, Joe came back home and met his mother again. His mother asked the same question.
Joe answered steadily, "Because of absence."
"You mean you were absent on the day of the test?" Mother wondered.
Joe replied, "No, but the kid who sits next to me was."

Tidak ada komentar: